History and Exam

Symptoms, most common to least common: [1,4-5]

  • Fever – 43%-98%

  • Dry cough – 67.7%

  • Fatigue – 38.1%

  • Sputum – 33.4%

  • Dyspnea – 18.6% 

  • Myalgia or arthralgia – 14.8% 

  • Sore throat – 13.9%

  • Chills – 11.4%

  • Nausea/vomiting – 5%

  • Nasal congestion or rhinorrhea – 4.8% 

  • Diarrhea – 3.7%

  • Hemoptysis – 0.9% 

  • Conjunctival infection – 0.8% 

 

Clinical course:

  • Patients typically have 4-6 days of symptoms before presenting to the hospital, with a maximum incubation period of up to 14 days [3-4]

    • Some progress to requiring oxygen, as dyspnea typically presents 6 days after exposure [2]

  • Intubation may be required for some patients, starting as early as day 2 or as late as day 14. Median for intubation requirement is 4 days [3]

  • Hospital admission may be required by day 8 post-exposure [4]

  • ICU admission may be required by day 10 post-exposure [4]

  • Currently, about 80% of patients have mild symptoms, while 5-20% require hospitalization and/or ICU admission [1-3]

 

Mortality rates: [1,3,5]

  • Total mortality rate from COVID-19: 0.5-4%

  • Mortality rate by age groups:

    • Age 15-44: 0.1-1.3% (median 0.5%)

    • Age 45-64: 0.2-1.1% (median 0.5%)

    • Age 65+: 1.5-4.7% (median 2.7%)

  • Mortality rate for patients that require hospitalization: 5-15%

  • Mortality rate for patients that require ICU: 22-62%

 

References:

  1. World Health Organization (WHO)

  2. Government of Canada

  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

  4. C. Huang, Y. Wang, X. Li, L. Ren, J. Zhao, Y. Hu, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet, 395 (2020), pp. 497-506

  5. Guan, Wei-Jie, et al. “Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China.” New England Journal of Medicine, 2020, doi:10.1056/nejmoa2002032.

© 2020 by MMAC. Proudly created with Wix.com

Icon made by Freepik from www.flaticon.com

Icon credits to Adrien Coquet from The Noun Project